The data show that around half of the world's population lives in Asia,Asian economies grew an average of 6 percent--nearly triple the rate of Europe and the U.S.--and their appetite for electricity is growing accordingly. The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that world energy consumption will increase 48 percent by 2040 and that much of that growth will come from countries such as China,India and Indonesia.Asia has nearly 900 billion tons of coal reserves.In fact,China and India will be the world's top and second-largest coal consumers by 2035.
There are around 3.5 billion people consume less electricity than Japan's average in southeast Asia,the region needs to generate about 4300 TWh more electricity to reach Japan's average level,in this way, about 80% of the world's coal output will need to be increased. Before 2020, driven by rapid economic development,Malaysia,Thailand and Vietnam will add a large amount of coal-fired power generation capacity,the average electricity demand in southeast Asian countries is growing at an annual rate of 12%.From the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan,Asian countries have also tightened the regulation of nuclear power, some Asian countries even cut down the proportion of nuclear power in the energy structure of the plan. For example, Japan's long-term plan is that about 22% to 23% of the electricity supply comes from nuclear power by 2030,South Korea is directly determined by 2030 nuclear power accounted for from the previous 41% to 30%.Japan believes its strategy of replacing old coal-fired power capacity with newer cleaner models is still the way forward.they believe that emissions would be cut as ageing coal plants were replaced by new ones using the latest technology,41 new coal-fired power plants are planned over the next decade, and taxes favour imports of coal over cleaner-burning natural gas.20 are planned by 2021 in Korea.Bringing the demand for coal-fired power generation growth,the entire southeast Asia region will have 50 GW of additional coal-fired power installed capacity put into operation by 2020.Fossil fuels are expected to remain the chief power source in Asia for the next several decades.Asia-Pacific will continue to lead the global coal power market with a share of 75% in 2025.
World leaders in Paris agreed to aim for an even more ambitious target in reducing carbon emissions, with implications for fossil fuels. Climate finance to pay for developing countries to shift to low-carbon energy, and compensation for the effects of climate change, which was historically caused by developed nations.Coal-fired power generation provides electricity for about 40 per cent of the world,It also accounts for nearly 75 per cent of the electricity sector's carbon emissions because many of the plants are older and inefficient, particularly in countries such as India and China.CO2 emissions could be cut by 10
percent, or 1.1 billion t a year, if technology to boost the efficiency of coal and gas-fired power plants were installed in every existing plant around the world. Software is also important,it make coal-fired power plants more efficient.
Coal plays an important role in meeting global energy demand. Around 25% of global electricity generation comes from coal and it is likely to remain a key fuel source for power generation in many countries, especially in developing countries.Total coal installed capacity will further increase to 2.6 TW by 2025.
Coal is the most abundant and economical of all the fossil fuels currently used, with prices that are lower and more stable than for oil and gas. Coal-fired power generation technologies have matured to become well established, and expertise in the field is extensive. Additionally, wide-ranging R&D efforts have been made over the years to improve the efficiency and environmental friendliness of coal-fired power plants.Governments across the world are encouraging R&D and the commercial adoption of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT), carbon capture and storage (CCS), and combined heat and power (CHP), which are more efficient and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Various policies and schemes have been rolled out to incentivise their use and, in some cases, they have been made mandatory.Clean coal technologies are used to improve the efficiency of existing coal-fired power plants and to reduce their CO2 emissions without affecting the amount of power generated. One of the ways to achieve this is improving the boilers that are used to generate steam.Global coal-fired capacity is expected to amount to 2618 GW, and the share accounted for by subcritical capacity is expected to decline to around 50% or even lower by 2025.Countries with abundant coal reserves, such as China, India, Poland, and South Africa, plan to make increased capacity additions based on coal to not only reduce their power deficit, but also to improve the operational efficiency of their plants through the adoption of clean coal technologies. The improvement of the operational efficiency of coal-fired plants will lead to increased power generation with higher efficiency and reduced emissions.During the 2014 ¡§C 2025 period, China is expected to add 522 GW of capacity, while India is expected to add 135 GW. India, under its 12th Five-Year Plan, is expected to make at least 50% of its coal-fired capacity additions based on SC technology, and aims for all of the coal-fired capacity made during its 13th Five-Year-Plan to be based on SC technology. The government has mandated that all power plants above 600 MW be based on SC and USC technology. China and the US are also expected to install substantial amounts of IGCC capacity by 2022. All of these developments are expected to boost the global clean coal technology market during the forecast period.The US, Germany and China have banned installations that neither have clean coal technologies nor adhere to stringent emission norms. Environmental regulations pertaining to the coal industry are designed to reduce the hazardous air pollutants emitted by coal-fired power plants, and countries are pushing utilities to support a more environmentally friendly form of coal power by adopting clean coal technology.
Asia is the biggest market for clean coal technology, and China has the most clean coal installations. Around 45% of its installed capacity is clean coal. China has mandated that all large power plants be constructed with clean coal technologies and has provided strict emission rules for coal power plants, which has resulted in the quick adoption of clean coal technologies in the country.Most of the mega coal power plant construction carried out in India is also based on SC or USC technology. In Japan, only 25% of coal installed capacity was subcritical as of 2014, with clean coal installations accounting for 75%. South Korea has also been a pioneer in using clean technologies and reducing emissions in many of its industries; clean coal accounts for over 80% of its installed coal capacity. During the forecast period, China is expected to lead the global market for clean coal capacity additions. A substantial amount of SC and USC capacity is expected to come online, supported by government mandates. IGCC technology will also see substantial additions before 2025.The global clean coal market will continue to be dominated by SC technology,USC-based capacity will see growth in market share, while IGCC, which is a nascent technology, is not expected to grow significantly. However,if the technology is proven and becomes less expensive, the share of IGCC installations could grow.
Coal will remain the dominant power generation source in China.Although many of China's coal-fired plants were running at less than half their capacity due to falling power demand, 205 GW in new capacity were under construction and 405 GW were planned.it was predicted that China's installed coal-fired power capacity could reach 1367 GW by 2020. China's current installed coal-fired capacity is around 920 GW.China, the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gases from coal, has been burning up to 17 percent more coal a year than the government previously disclosed, according to newly released data. The finding could complicate the already difficult efforts to limit global warming.Even for a country of China's size, the scale of the correction is immense. The sharp upward revision in official figures means that China has released much more carbon dioxide--almost a billion more tons a year according to initial calculations--than previously estimated.The increase alone is greater than the whole German economy emits annually from fossil fuels.
At COP21 in Paris the Chinese announced that they would reduce major pollutants in the power sector by 60 per cent and annual carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants by 180 million tonnes.
In September 2014, the NDRC,MEP,NEA jointly released the "coal-fired power energy-saving emission reduction upgrading retrofiting action plan",it required new units should have advanced and hih efficient desulfurization, denitrification and dust removal facilities simultaneously,the new unit reach the limits of the turbine emissions in the eastern region basically,in principle close to or reach the turbine emission limits in the central region,encourage the western region close to or reach the turbine emission limits. At the same time,promote the eastern part existing coal-fired power plant to implement the air pollutant emission concentration basically reached the limits environmental retrofiting steadily .
In March 2015, Premier Keqiang Li deliver the report on behalf of the state council.The report pointed out that reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity more than 3.1%, COD Ammonia Nitrogen emissions have to be reduced by about 2%, SO2 NOx emissions should be reduced by about 3% and 5% in 2015.Implement air pollution control action plan deeply,regional joint control,promote coal-fired power plant ultra-low-emission retrofiting and zero coal consumption growth in key areas.
2nd December in 2015,the state council executive meeting decided that the full implementation of ultra-low-emission and energy-saving retrofiting for coal-fired power plants,reduce coal consumpstion and pollution emissions significantly by 2020.
9th Dec 2015,A week after pledging its intention to substantially reduce emissions from power plants, NDRC MEP NEA had stated that the country will raise power prices paid to coal-fired power plants that comply with the government's coal efficiency standards.The new measure is in line with that target as China battles to cut the air pollution that has plagued its cities.Plants that open after Jan. 1 and meet the government's environmental requirements will get an additional 0.005 yuan per kilowatt hour on top of their basic grid tariff.Those already in operation will get an extra 0.01 yuan per kilowatt hour, which would equate to about 42 million yuan ($6.5 million) if all thermal power output last year had been produced at plants meeting the coal efficiency standards.
As an incentive, it offered increased payments to generators that upgrade facilities, with total subsidies estimated to be worth $6.4bn a year.
The higher tariffs will take effect in January and last until the end of 2017, when the government will reassess the rate.
15th January in 2016, the NEA NDRC MEP held meeting to accelerate the national ultra-low emissions and energy-saving retrofiting.
This combined policies package shows the Chinese government's commitment to reducing emissions,realize the green fossil power plants.
The Japanese government is set to build up to 45 new high energy, low emission (HELE) coal-fired power plants in a bid to diversify its power supply.
Following Fukushima, the country had favoured gas-fired power, with liquefied natural gas being imported, but has opted for coal, as gas has risen in price.
The coal will to be used in the plants will be imported also from Australia and the island nation is heavily dependent on imports for its electricity security.Coal power advocates say HELE coal fired power plants produce half of the emissions of traditional plants.
Japan's environment ministry has withdrawn its objections to the construction of new coal-fired power capacity in the country after heavy negotiation with the ministry of economy, trade and industry.The environment ministry had raised concerns in 2015 over several planned coal power projects, but has reportedly now endorsed a voluntary emissions reduction system.Under the new system. A new trade body composed of the 36 firms that supply almost all of Japan's power has also been formed, with the aim of implementing emission control measures.The industry ministry plans to more strictly regulate new and existing coal-fired plants from 1 April 2016, but the tightened rules on heat efficiency will be non-binding.Japan's power sector will aim to reduce its emissions by 35 per cent from 2013 levels by 2030.
South Korea spent a record amount of money on coal-fired power generation last year,a nearly three-fold increase over a decade, indicating that the country's dependence on the fossil fuel still runs high, industry data showed.In Paris, South Korea agreed to reduce emissions by 37 percent by 2030 and a ministry official said reduced coal use is expected to curtail emissions by about 6 percent.South Korea is still committed to building 20 new coal-fired plants by 2022.
Japan and India agreed to co-operate on a number of energy-related initiatives in the latter country.Japan will support India's efforts to introduce high-efficiency coal-fired power generation technologies.Along with this initiative, the two countries will undertake a study on reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants.
Indonesia plans to add 20 GW of coal-fired power generation capacity by 2020.
Indonesian ministries reiterated their commitment to use the best technology possible to reduce emissions while continuing to use coal as a significant part of its energy mix.Indonesia's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in the lead up to COP21, committed to unconditionally reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 29 per cent by 2030 and with international support extending that target to 41 per cent.Indonesia is the fourth-largest coal producer in the world. As an abundant source of fuel, coal remains a primary component of the country's efforts to provide electricity to a bigger percentage of its population. Currently, 50 coal-fired power plants are operational in Indonesia with a capacity of 19,404 MW.
The Philippines'president said that building more coal-fired power plants is necessary to meet the nation's growing energy needs.
Data show that the Philippine power supply is heavily dependent on coal, nearly 70% from coal,it will add 49 power projects a total of 5014 megawatts of power generation in the next four years, 12 projects are coal-fired power plants totaled 3398 megawatts of electricity generation, accounting for 67.77%. This situation will continue until 2019. Some private enterprises are still building or build more coal-fired power plants, the national coal power plant will add 18 by 2025, with a total installed capacity of 14270 MW, coal fired power will account for 61.3% share.Energy Secretary announced that 23 new coal-fired power plants would be established by 2020.
Malaysia to boost coal-fired power generation,
Malaysia aims to increase generation capacity by more than 6,000MW between 2015 and 2020.This is meant to meet power demand, which is expected to grow at a rate of three to five per cent annually until 2020.The country's current installed capacity is at 21,817MW.Malaysia has one of the highest rates of power consumption per capita in the Asean region.Currently, the power generation mix in the country was heavily tilted towards natural gas (58 per cent), followed by coal (33 per cent), hydro (five per cent) and others (four per cent).In recent years, fuel availability to the power sector has been challenged by the tightness in the supply of natural gas,however,there is a notable shift in the generation mix to a heavier reliance on coal-fired power plants instead,it anticipates an increase in coal-generated power from the current 33 percent to 45 per cent by 2020 and 50 percent by 2030.
Vietnam is aiming to build 46 new coal-fired power stations ranging in size from 40 MW to 600 MW in capacity.
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